Introduction ::SeychellesBackground:A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was re-elected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in May 2011.Geography ::SeychellesLocation:archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of MadagascarGeographic coordinates:4 35 S, 55 40 EArea:total: 455 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 199land: 455 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:2.5 times the size of Washington, DCLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:491 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental marginClimate:tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)Terrain:Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefsElevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 mhighest point: Morne Seychellois 905 mNatural resources:fish, copra, cinnamon treesLand use:arable land: 2.17%permanent crops: 4.35%other: 93.48% (2011)Irrigated land:2.6 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughtsEnvironment - current issues:water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwaterEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:41 granitic and about 75 coralline islandsPeople and Society ::SeychellesNationality:noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)adjective: SeychelloisEthnic groups:mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and ArabLanguages:Creole 91.8%, English (official) 4.9%, other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2002 census)Religions:Roman Catholic 82.3%, Protestant 7.5% (Anglican 6.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.1%), other Christian 3.4%, Hindu 2.1%, Muslim 1.1%, other non-Christian 1.5%, unspecified 1.5%, none 0.6% (2002 census)Population:90,846 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 197Age structure:0-14 years: 21.2% (male 9,852/female 9,364)15-24 years: 14.6% (male 6,932/female 6,293)25-54 years: 49.3% (male 23,471/female 21,306)55-64 years: 7.8% (male 3,663/female 3,378)65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,520/female 4,067) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 42.6 %youth dependency ratio: 31.6 %elderly dependency ratio: 11 %potential support ratio: 9.1 (2013)Median age:total: 33.4 yearsmale: 33 yearsfemale: 34 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:0.9% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Birth rate:14.85 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Death rate:6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Net migration rate:1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 56Urbanization:urban population: 53.6% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:VICTORIA (capital) 26,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 11.06 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 136male: 13.85 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 8.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.01 yearscountry comparison to the world: 116male: 69.4 yearsfemale: 78.76 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.89 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Health expenditures:3.4% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 177Physicians density:1.51 physicians/1,000 population (2004)Hospital bed density:3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 98% of populationunimproved:urban: 2% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAObesity - adult prevalence rate:23.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 70Education expenditures:4.8% of GDP (2006)country comparison to the world: 80Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 91.8%male: 91.4%female: 92.3% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 yearsmale: 13 yearsfemale: 14 years (2011)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 20.3% (2002)country comparison to the world: 56Government ::SeychellesCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Seychellesconventional short form: Seychelleslocal long form: Republic of Seychelleslocal short form: SeychellesGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Victoriageographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 Etime difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:25 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Inner Islands, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamalles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, TakamakaIndependence:29 June 1976 (from the UK)National holiday:Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993)Constitution:18 June 1993Legal system:mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 19-21 May 2011 (next to be held in 2016)election results: President James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 55.5%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 41.4%, Philippe BOULLE 1.7%, Ralph VOLCERE 1.5%; note - this was the second election in which President James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn in as president after former president France Albert RENE stepped down in April 2004Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; members to serve five-year terms)elections: last held on 29 September - 1 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - the National Assembly was dissolved in July 2011 resulting in early electionselection results: percent of vote by party - PL 88.6%, PDM 10.9%, independents 0.6%; seats by party - PL 31, vacant - 3; note - the ruling SPPF changed its name to People's Party (Party Lepep) in June 2009; the SNP and NDP boycotted the 2011 electionsJudicial branch:highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices; Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 5 pusine judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges)judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Committee, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges appointed until retirement at age 70subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, and child custody and maintenancePolitical parties and leaders:Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW]New Democratic Party or NDPPeople's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [France Albert RENE]Popular Democratic Movement or PDMSeychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO)Political pressure groups and leaders:Roman Catholic Churchother: trade unionsInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Marie-Louise Cecile POTTERchancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017telephone:  (212) 972-1785FAX:  (212) 972-1786consulate(s) general: Los AngelesDiplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to SeychellesFlag description:five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side; the oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future; blue represents sky and sea, yellow the sun giving light and life, red the peoples' determination to work for the future in unity and love, white social justice and harmony, green the land and natural environmentNational anthem:name: ""Koste Seselwa"" (Seychellois Unite)lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYETnote: adopted 1996Economy ::SeychellesEconomy - overview:since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the upper-middle-income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. In July 2008 the government defaulted on a Euro amortizing note worth roughly US$80 million, leading to a downgrading of Seychelles credit rating. In an effort to obtain loans to service its debt, Seychelles in November 2008 signed a standby arrangement with the IMF that mandated floating the exchange rate, removing foreign exchange controls, cutting government spending, and tightening monetary policy. In response to Seychelles' successful implementation of these policies, the IMF upgraded Seychelles to a three-year extended fund facility (EFF) of $31 million in December 2009. In 2008, GDP fell more than 1% due to declining tourism and the initial effects of liberalization, but the economy recovered in 2010-11 after the reforms took hold and tourism increased. Growth slowed again in 2012 with flagging tourism from Russia and the United Arab Emirates. Seychelles is attempting to implement further structural reforms, including overhauling the tax system, reorganizing of state enterprises, and deregulating the finance and communications sectors.GDP (purchasing power parity):$2.355 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 188$2.292 billion (2011 est.)$2.182 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$1.031 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:2.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1135% (2011 est.)5.6% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$25,600 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 61$25,200 (2011 est.)$24,300 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:18.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8211.6% of GDP (2011 est.)8.4% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 99.1%government consumption: 13.4%investment in fixed capital: 37.2%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 41.1%imports of goods and services: -101.2%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 2%industry: 18.7%services: 79.3% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), copra, bananas; poultry; tunaIndustries:fishing, tourism, processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beveragesIndustrial production growth rate:4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 73Labor force:39,560 (2006)country comparison to the world: 197Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 3%industry: 23%services: 74% (2006)Unemployment rate:2% (2006 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4.7%highest 10%: 15.4% (2007)Budget:revenues: $438.3 millionexpenditures: $415.4 million (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:42.5% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):2.2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 21Public debt:61.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 4474.6% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):7.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1772.6% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:11.17% (31 December 2010 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:12.19% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7211.19% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$301.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 169$302.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$553.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 175$598.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$408.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 178$422.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$179.8 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 76-$211.1 million (2011 est.)Exports:$493.3 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 172$478 million (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:canned tuna, frozen fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)Exports - partners:France 27.8%, UK 17.7%, Japan 15.3%, Italy 10.7% (2012)Imports:$889.6 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 181$879.6 million (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals, other manufactured goodsImports - partners:Saudi Arabia 23.2%, Spain 11.9%, France 5.8% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$318.7 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 152$290.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$1.776 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 147$1.779 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar -13.704 (2012 est.)12.381 (2011 est.)12.068 (2010 est.)13.61 (2009)8 (2008)Energy ::SeychellesElectricity - production:245 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 175Electricity - consumption:227.9 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Electricity - installed generating capacity:95,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 169Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 172Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 195Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 183Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 183Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 177Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 118Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 182Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Refined petroleum products - consumption:7,793 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 159Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 129Refined petroleum products - imports:6,923 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 186Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 190Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 188Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:1.245 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 160Communications ::SeychellesTelephones - main lines in use:27,900 (2011)country comparison to the world: 180Telephones - mobile cellular:126,600 (2011)country comparison to the world: 187Telephone system:general assessment: effective systemdomestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 170 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelagointernational: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:the government operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available; the government operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio station; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Victoria (2007)Internet country code:.scInternet hosts:247 (2012)country comparison to the world: 195Internet users:32,000 (2008)country comparison to the world: 180Transportation ::SeychellesAirports:14 (2013)country comparison to the world: 150Airports - with paved runways:total: 72,438 to 3,047 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 5under 914 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 7914 to 1,523 m: 2under 914 m:5 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Roadways:total: 508 kmcountry comparison to the world: 194paved: 490 kmunpaved: 18 km (2003)Merchant marine:total: 9country comparison to the world: 118by type: cargo 1, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, petroleum tanker 1foreign-owned: 3 (Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 1, South Africa 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:VictoriaMilitary ::SeychellesMilitary branches:Seychelles Defense Force: Army, Coast Guard (includes Naval Wing, Air Wing), National Guard (2005)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent); no conscription (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 26,257females age 16-49: 23,996 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 20,231females age 16-49: 19,891 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 686female: 650 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 148Transnational Issues ::SeychellesDisputes - international:Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)Trafficking in persons:current situation: Seychelles is a source and destination country for Seychellois children and foreign women subjected to sex trafficking; Seychellois girls and, to a lesser extent, boys are forced into prostitution in nightclubs, bars, guest houses, hotels, brothels, private homes, and on the streets by peers, family members, and pimps; foreign tourists, sailors, and migrant workers contribute to the demand for commercial sex acts in Seychelles; some of the large population of foreign migrant workers reportedly experience the underpayment of wages and substandard housingtier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Seychelles does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has failed to report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking offenses; the government also has not identified or provided protective services to any trafficking victims and punished victims for crimes committed as a result of being trafficked, although it has acknowledged the need for specialized training of officials in recognizing, investigating, and prosecuting trafficking offenses, it did not provide any such training during the reporting period (2013)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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SEYCHELLES — Situé au cœur de l’océan Indien, l’archipel des Seychelles demeure peu connu dans son ensemble malgré sa réputation touristique. Cet État exigu, issu d’une décolonisation récente, a tout juste deux siècles d’existence, puisque ce sont des colons… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Seychelles — renamed 1756 in honor of French finance minister Jean Moreau de Séchelles; spelling altered 1794 by the English when they took the islands from France … Etymology dictionary
Seychelles — [sā shel′, sāshelz′] country on a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar: formerly a British colony, it became independent as a republic within the Commonwealth (1976): 175 sq mi (453 sq km); pop. 67,000; cap. Victoria (on… … English World dictionary
Seychelles — Republic of Seychelles Repiblik Sesel République des Seychelles … Wikipedia
Seychelles — /say shel , shelz /, n. (used with a pl. v.) a republic consisting of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, NE of Madagascar: a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 78,142; 175 sq. mi. (455 sq. km). Cap.: Victoria. * * * Seychelles Introduction… … Universalium
Seychelles — Repiblik Sesel République des Seychelles Republic of Seychelles República de las Seychelles … Wikipedia Español
Seychelles — Pour l’article homophone, voir C shell. République des Seychelles (fr) … Wikipédia en Français
Seychelles — La República de Seychelles es un grupo de 115 islas ubicadas en el Océano Índico, al noreste de Madagascar, con una superficie total de 455 km². Su capital Victoria es la única ciudad de archipiélago, ubicada en la isla Mahé, habitada por un… … Enciclopedia Universal
Seychelles — noun 1. a republic on the Seychelles islands; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1976 • Syn: ↑Republic of Seychelles • Instance Hypernyms: ↑country, ↑state, ↑land • Part Holonyms: ↑Seychelles islands … Useful english dictionary
Seychelles — /seɪˈʃɛlz/ (say say shelz) noun a republic consisting of more than 100 islands in the western Indian Ocean, including the Seychelles archipelago; a French, then a British colony before independence in 1976. 444 km2. Languages: Creole, also… … Australian English dictionary